Islamification vs. Islamophobia: A Message to the Youth in the Occident: Critical & Rhetorical Inquiries
Keywords:identification theory, Burkean rhetoric, rhetorical strategies, socio-cognitive model, Mr. Khamenei’s letters, Islamophobia, Islamification
Drawing upon the recent theoretical framework of Burkean concept of identification (ID), the current study aims at probing the interaction of content and form in two letters penned by Iran’s Supreme Leader and addressed to the Youth on Jan. and Nov. 2015. To this end, the study seeks (i) to determine a role ID takes in the conveyance of intended assumptions to the targeted readers; and (ii) to observe if the writer’s objectives, i.e. to identify himself with the readers and to realize his politically-religiously-infused creeds, result in success or failure; moreover, (iii) it seeks to determine how he achieved his end to attenuate the impacts of blazing inferno of Islamophobia and anti-Islam sentiments in his addressees. The whole corpus (about 3000 words), in light of van Dijk’s Socio-cognitive approach, is critically perused to seek out contextually-coded expressions. The study tries to set out a manner in which political text/talk could be analyzed rhetorically employing ID concept. It was found that ID as a two-way process is a key component for both parties to identify with. It makes the readers align themselves with the writer and helps the writer to associate with the readers and accomplish his goals.
Abrams, M. H., & Harpham, G. G. (2009). A Glossary of Literary Terms. Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Ambrester, R. (1974). Identification within Kenneth Burke’s view of the unconscious. Philosophy & Rhetoric, 7(4), 205-216. Retrieved April 10, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40236908.
Atkins, J., & Finlayson, A. (2014). ‘As Shakespeare so Memorably Said…’: Quotation, Rhetoric, and the Performance of Politics. Political Studies, 64(1), 164 – 181. 10.1111/1467-9248.12156.
Bitzer, L. (1980). The Rhetorical Situation. Philosophy and Rhetoric, 1, 1- 14. Retrieved April 10, 2020, from http://www.bhsu.edu/Portals/201/Bitzer--Rhetorical%20Situation.pdf.
Burke, K. (1937). Attitudes toward history (3rd ed.). Belkeley: University of California Press.
Burke, K. (1951). Rhetoric-Old and New. The Journal of General Education. 5(3), 202-209. Retrieved April 10, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/27795349.
Burke, K. (1969a). A Rhetoric of Motives (2nd ed.). Belkeley: University of California Press.
Burke, K. (1969b). A Grammar of Motives (2nd ed.). Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Cheney, G. (1983). The rhetoric of identification and the study of organizational communication. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 69(2), 143-158.
Chilton, P. A. (2004). Analyzing Political Discourse: Theory & Practice. London: Routledge.
Christiansen, J. (2014). Identification: The Missing Link within the Rhetoric of Social Movements (Unpublished master's thesis). Manhattan: Kansas State University. Retrieved April 10, 2020, from http://krex.k-state.edu/dspace/handle/2097/17678
Corbett, E. (1998). Classical rhetoric for the modern student, New York: Oxford University Press.
Day, D. G. (1960). Persuasion and the concept of identification. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 46(3), 270-273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335636009382421.
Ehninger, D. (1975). A Synoptic View of Systems of Western Rhetoric. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 61(4):448-453. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335637509383307.
Flowerdew, J. (2002). Rhetorical strategies and identity politics in the discourse of colonial withdrawal. Journal of Language and Politics, 1(1), 149-180. https://doi.org/10.1075/jlp.1.1.09flo.
Foss, S. K., Foss, K. A. & Trapp, R. (2001). Contemporary Perspectives on Rhetoric (3rd eds.). Waveland press, Inc.
Griffin, L. M. (1952). The Rhetoric of historical movements. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 38(2), 184-188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335635209381762.
Hansen, G. (1996). Kenneth Burke's Rhetorical Theory within the Construction of the Ethnography of Speaking. Folklore Forum, 27(1), 50-59.
Hart, R. P., & Daughton, S. (2005). Modern Rhetorical Criticism. (3rd ed.). Boston: Pearson.
Harte, T. B. (1977). The concept of identification in the rhetorical theories of Kenneth Burke and Eric Hoffer. Communicator, 7(2), 64-69
Herrick, J. A. (2013). A History and Theory of Rhetoric: An Introduction. (5th ed.). New York: Routledge.
Johnstone, B., & Eisenhart, C. (Eds.). (2008). Rhetoric in Detail: Discourse Analyses of Rhetorical Talk and Text. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing. doi.org/10.1075/dapsac.31.
Kazemian, B., & Hashemi, S. (2014). Critical discourse analysis of Barack Obama's 2012 speeches: Views from systemic functional linguistics and rhetoric. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 4(6), 1178-1187. DOI:10.4304/tpls.4.6.1178-1187.
Kazemian, B., & Hashemi, S. (2017). A Radical Shift to a Profound and Rigorous Investigation in Political Discourse: An Integrated Approach. International Journal of English Linguistics, 7(3), 115-128. doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v7n3p115.
Lakoff, R. T. (1990). Talking Power: The Politics of Language in Our Lives. USA: BasicBooks.
Li, Y. & Chen, G (2015). The Application of Identification Strategies in Sci-fi Movie Avatar. International Journal of English Linguistics, 5(2), 123-131. doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v5n2p123.
Murphy, J. M. (2003). “Our mission and our moment”: George W. Bush and September 11th. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 6(4), 607-632. doi.org/10.1353/rap.2004.0013.
Rex, J. (2011). The President’s War Agenda: A Rhetorical View. Presidential Studies Quarterly 41(1), 93-118. doi:10.1111/j.1741-5705.2010.03832.x.
Richardson, J. E. (2004). (Mis) Representing Islam: The Racism and Rhetoric of British Broadsheet Newspapers. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing. doi.org/10.1075/dapsac.9.
Rosenfeld, L. B. (1969). Set Theory: Key to the understanding, of Kenneth Burke's use of the term "Identification". Western Speech, 33(3), 175-183. Retrieved April 10, 2020, from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10570316909384575.
Sinha, P. N. & Jackson, B. (2006). A Burkean Inquiry into Leader–Follower Identification Motives. Journal of Culture & Organization, 12(3), 233-247. doi.org/10.1080/14759550600865966.
Stanovich, K. E. (1980). Toward an interactive-compensatory model of individual differences in the development of reading fluency. Reading Research Quarterly, 16(1), 32-71. DOI: 10.2307/747348.
Thomas, L., & Wareing. S. (2004). Language, Society and Power. London: Routledge.
Valentine, S. F. (2015). Force and Fanaticism: Wahhabism in Saudi Arabia and Beyond. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Van Dijk, T. A. (2001). Critical Discourse Analysis. In D. Schiffrin, D. Tannen, & H. E. Hamilton (eds.). (2015). The Handbook of Discourse Analysis (2nd eds.) (pp. 352-371). Oxford: Blackwell.
Van, Dijk, T. A. (1993). Principles of Critical Discourse Analysis. Discourse & Society, 4(2), 249-283. 10.1177/0957926593004002006.
Van Dijk, T. A. (2008). Discourse and Context: A sociocognitive approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Van Dijk, T. A. (2012). Discourse and knowledge. In J. P. Gee & M. Handford (eds.). (2012). The Routledge Handbook of Discourse Analysis. (pp. 596-603). London: Routledge.
Weaver, R. (1953). The ethics of rhetoric. Chicago: Henry Regnery.
Woods, N. (2006). Describing discourse: A practical guide to discourse analysis. New York: Horder Education.
Ziahosseiny, S. M. (1999). A contrastive analysis of Persian and English and error analysis. Tehran: Nashr-e Vira.
Zhou, Q. & Kazemian, B. (2015). A Rhetorical Identification Analysis of English Political Public Speaking: John F. Kennedy’s Inaugural Address. International Journal of Language and Linguistics, 4(1-1), 10-16. 10.11648/j.ijll.s.2016040101.12.