Moderating Effects of Self-efficacy on Chinese Language Achievement for Minority Students
Keywords:self-efficacy, parents’ career, language achievement, minority
The purpose of this article was to explore the effect of the contextual variables and individual variables on the language achievement for the minority students in Chinese primary school. There were 9,102 students from grade 2 to grade 6 who participated in the investigation, including 578 minority and 4731 girls from five regions with different developing levels. Firstly, the results show that the ethnicity does not have a direct effect on the language achievement and the self-efficacy has moderating effect for ethnicity on language achievement. Secondly, the gender and parents’ career have a direct and indirect effect on the language achievement. Male minority students with lower parents’ careers level would have a high probability to fall in the language achievement. But, all these effects are moderated by the students’ self-efficacy. Finally, it implied that the early efforts to promote the students’ self-efficacy beliefs would enhance the future language achievement for the minority students in the primary school.
Anderson-Yockel, J., & Haynes, W. (1994). Joint book-reading strategies in working-class African American and White mother-toddler dyads. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 37, 583–593.
Achtziger, A., Bayer, U.C. (2020). Self-control mediates the link between gender and academic achievement in sex-stereotyped school subjects in elementary and in higher secondary schools. Current Psychology, 39, 1683–1695.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.
Bai, B., Wang, J., & Nie, Y. (2021). Self-efficacy, task values and growth mindset: what has the most predictive power for primary school students’ self-regulated learning in English writing and writing competence in an Asian Confucian cultural context?. Cambridge Journal of Education, 51(1), 65–84.
Buchanan, T. & Selmon, N. (2008). Race and gender differences in self-efficacy: Assessing the role of gender role attitudes and family background. Sex Roles, 58(11-12), 822–836.
Cabell, S. Q., Justice, L. M., Logan, J. R., & Konold, T. R. (2013). Emergent literacy profiles among prekindergarten children from low-SES backgrounds: Longitudinal considerations. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28(3), 608–620.
Caprara, G.V., Barbaranelli, C., Pastorelli, C., Bandura, A., & Zimbardo, P.G. (2000). Pro-social foundations of children's academic achievement. Psychological Science, 11, 302–306.
Caprara, G. V., Fida, R., Vecchione, M., Del Bove, G., Vecchio, G. M., Barbaranelli, C., et al. (2008). Longitudinal analysis of the role of perceived self-efficacy for self-regulated learning in academic continuance and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(3), 525–534.
Central Committee and the State Council (CPC). (1956). The recommendation for Mandarin Chinese popularization. In He, D. (ed.), Important Education Document From Year 1949-1975 in P.R. China. Haikou: Hainan publisher, 572–573.
CPC National Congress. (2017). Report on the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. http://www.12371.cn/2017/10/27/ARTI1509103656574313.shtml (accessed 03/2/2021).
D’Lima, G. M., Winsler, A., & Kitsantas, A. (2014). Ethnic and Gender Differences in First-Year College Students’ Goal Orientation, Self-Efficacy, and Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation. The Journal of Educational Research, 107(5), 341–356.
Duncan, G. J., Dowsett, C. J., Claessens, A., Magnuson, K., Huston, A.C., Klevanov, P, et al. (2007). School readiness and later achievement. Development Psychology, 43(6), 1428–1446.
Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. (2011). The impact of enhancing students social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development. 82(1), 405–432.
Elias, M. J., Zins, J. E., Weissberg, R. P., Frey, K. S., Greenberg, M. T., Haynes, N. M., et al. (1997). Promoting social and emotional learning: Guidelines for educators. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Espinoza, A.M., Strasser, K. (2020). Is reading a feminine domain? The role of gender identity and stereotypes in reading motivation in Chile. Social Psychology of Education, 23(4), 861–890.
Fung, Wk., Chung, K.K. (2020). The role of socioeconomic status in Chinese word reading and writing among Chinese kindergarten children. Reading and Writing, 33, 377–397
Garcia, A. B., & Zimmerman, B. J. (1972). The effect of examiner ethnicity and language on the performance of Bilingual Mexican-American First grade. The Journal of Social Psychology, 87, 5–11.
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55.
Irizarry, Y., Cohen, E.D. (2019). Of Promise and Penalties: How Student Racial-Cultural Markers Shape Teacher Perceptions. Race and Social Problems, 11(2), 93–111.
Iwaniec, J. (2019). Language learning motivation and gender: The case of Poland. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 29(1), 130–143.
Johnson, L. R., Kim, E.H., Johnson-Pynn, J.S. & Schulenberg, S.E. (2012). African and U.S. Youth ethnic identity, self-efficacy, and intercultural attitudes in east. Journal of Adolescent Research, 27(2), 256–289.
Liew, J., McTigue, E.M., Barrois, L., & Hughes, J. (2008). Adaptive and effortful control and academic self-efficacy beliefs on achievement: A longitudinal study of 1st through 3rd graders. Early Child Research Quarterly, 23(4), 515–526.
Louis, R. A. & Mistele, J. M. (2012). The differences in scores and self-efficacy by student gender in mathematics and science. International journal of science and mathematical education, 10, 1163–1190.
Ma Yin. (1981). China’s Minorities. Beijing: People’s Press.
Marat, D. (2005). Assessing mathematics self-efficacy of diverse students from secondary schools in Auckland: Implications for academic achievement. Issues in Educational Research, 15, 37–68.
Marks, G. N. (2008). Accounting for the gender gaps in student performance in reading and mathematics: Evidence from 31 countries. Oxford Review of Education, 34(1), 89–109.
Marvin, C., & Mirenda, P. (1993). Home literacy experiences of preschoolers enrolled in Head Start and special education programs. Journal of Early Intervention, 17, 351–367.
McLellan, Ros, Forbes, Karen, & Li, J. (2021). Investigating EFL teachers’ gender-stereotypical beliefs about learners: A mixed-methods study. Cambridge Journal of Education, 51(1), 19–44.
Mills, N., Pajares, F. & Herron, C. (2007). Self‐efficacy of College Intermediate French Students: Relation to Achievement and Motivation. Language Learning, 57(3), 417–442.
Ministry of Education. (1953). Suggestions for problem of what kind of the language should be used in the minority area schools. In He, D. (ed.), Important Education Document From Year 1949-1975 in P.R. China. Haikou: Hainan publisher, 195.
Ministry of Education. (1956). About the problem of using the minority language in the Mongolian school. In He, D. (ed.), Important Education Document From Year 1949-1975 in P.R. China. Haikou: Hainan publisher, 195.
Ministry of Education. (1962). Announcement on the priority of the minority students to enroll in the high school. In He, D. (ed.), Important Education Document From Year 1949-1975 in P.R. China. Haikou: Hainan publisher, 1114.
Ministry of Education. (1980). Announcement on the minority class in Key high school in Year 1980. In He, D. (ed.), Important Education Document From Year 1949-1975 in P.R. China. Haikou: Hainan publisher, 411–412.
Ministry of Education. (1982). Syllabus for the Chinese language education for whole day school (draft). In He, D. (ed.), Important Education Document From Year 1949-1975 in P.R. China. Haikou: Hainan publisher, 415.
Ministry of Education. (2004). Interim measures for the examination and approval of textbooks for ethnic minorities in Primary and Middle Schools. http://www.moe.gov.cn/srcsite/A09/moe_750/200405/t20040517_77844.html (accessed 02/2/2021).
Ministry of Education. (2005). The implementation Plan of training program for high-level professionals of ethnic minority Origins. http://www.moe.gov.cn/s78/A09/mzs_left/moe_763/tnull_8651.html (accessed 02/2/2021).
Ministry of Education. (2017). Circular on matters related to the morality of compulsory Education and the Rule of Law, Chinese, History and Science Teaching Books in Primary Schools in 2017. http://www.moe.gov.cn/srcsite/A26/moe_714/201707/t20170703_308452.html (accessed 02/2/2021).
National People's Congress. (1995). The education law of the people's Republic of China. http://www.moe.edu.cn/publicfiles/business/htmlfiles/moe/moe_619/200407/1316.html (accessed 28/1/2021).
National Ethnic Affairs Commission. (2017). The plan of ethnic minority languages during the 13th five-year Plan of NEAC. https://www.neac.gov.cn/seac/zcfg/201704/1074196.shtml (accessed 02/2/2021).
Oettingen, G. (1995). Cross-cultural perspectives on self-efficacy beliefs. In A. Bandura (Ed.), Self-efficacy in changing societies. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 149–176.
Pajares, K. (2003). Self-efficacy beliefs, motivation, and achievement in writing: A review of the literature. Reading & Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties, 19 (2), 139–158.
Pajares, Frank, & Valiante, Giovanni. (2001). Gender Differences in Writing Motivation and Achievement of Middle School Students: A Function of Gender Orientation?. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 26(3), 366–381.
Raver CC, & Knitzer, J. (2002). Ready to enter: What research tells policymakers about strategies to promote social and emotional school readiness among three- and four-year-old children. New York: National Center for Children in Poverty, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University.
Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Fan, X., Chiu, Y–J., & You, W. (2007). The contribution of the Responsive Classroom approach on children's academic achievement: Results from a three-year longitudinal study. Journal of School Psychology, 45, 401–421.
Sakiz, G., Pape, S. J., & Hoy, A. W. (2012). Does perceived teacher affective support matter for middle school students in mathematics classrooms?. Journal of School Psychology, 50(2), 235–255.
Standing Committee of the National People's Congress. (2000). The Law of National Language and Writing System of Wider Communication. http://www.gov.cn/ziliao/flfg/2005-08/31/content_27920.htm (accessed 02/2/2021).
Soland, J., & Sandilos, L. E. (2021). English language learners, self-efficacy, and the achievement gap: Understanding the relationship between academic and social-emotional growth. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 26(1), 20–44.
Smith,J. K., Smith, L. F., Gilmore, A. & Jameson, M. (2012). Students' self-perception of reading ability, enjoyment of reading and reading achievement. Learning and Individual Differences, 22(2), 202–206.
Teachman, J. D. & Paasch, K. (1998). The family and educational aspirations. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 60, 704–714.
Tong, Y., & Song, S. (2004). A study on general self-efficacy and subjective well-Being of low SES-College students in a Chinese university. College Student Journal, 38 (4), 637–642.
Van Braak, J. P. (2004). Domains and determinants of university students’ self-perceived computer competence. Computers and Education, 43(3), 299–312.
Zhou, Minglang. (2000). Language policy and illiteracy in ethnic minority communities in China. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 21 (2): 129–148.
Zins, J., Bloodworth, M., Weissberg, R., & Walberg, H. (2004). The scientiﬁc base linking social and emotional learning to school success. In J. Zins, R. Weissberg, M. Wang, & H. J. Walberg (eds.), Building academic success on social and emotional learning: What does the research say?. New York: Teachers Press, Columbia University, 1–22.
Li, B., Li, Y. N., & Hua, C. (2020). Early experience and later multilingual attainments by ethnic minority students in Hong Kong. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02188791.2020.1820312 (accessed 01/2/2021).